Project Quay is an enterprise-quality container registry. Use Project Quay to build and store container images, then make them available to deploy across your enterprise.

The Project Quay Operator provides a simple method to deploy and manage a Project Quay cluster. This is the preferred procedure for deploying Project Quay on OpenShift and is covered in this guide.

Note that this version of the Project Quay Operator has been completely rewritten and differs substantially from earlier versions. Please review this documentation carefully. If you are looking for documentation for prior versions of the Project Quay Operator, please check here.

Prerequisites for Project Quay on OpenShift

Here are a few things you need to know before you begin the Project Quay Operator on OpenShift deployment:

  • OpenShift cluster: You need a privileged account to an OpenShift 4.5 or later cluster on which to deploy the Project Quay Operator. That account must have the ability to create namespaces at the cluster scope.

  • Resource Requirements: Each Project Quay application pod has the following resource requirements:

    • 8Gi of memory

    • 2000 millicores of CPU.

The Project Quay Operator will create at least one application pod per Project Quay deployment it manages. Ensure your OpenShift cluster has sufficient compute resources for these requirements.

  • Object Storage: By default, the Project Quay Operator uses the ObjectBucketClaim Kubernetes API to provision object storage. Consuming this API decouples the Operator from any vendor-specific implementation. OpenShift Container Storage provides this API via its NooBaa component, which will be used in this example. Otherwise, Project Quay can be manually configured to use any of the following supported cloud storage options:

    • Amazon S3 (see S3 IAM Bucket Policy for details on configuring an S3 bucket policy for Project Quay)

    • Azure Blob Storage

    • Google Cloud Storage

    • Ceph Object Gateway (RADOS)

    • OpenStack Swift

    • CloudFront + S3

Installing the Quay Operator

Differences from Earlier Versions

As of Project Quay 3.4.0, the Operator has been completely re-written to provide an improved out of the box experience as well as support for more Day 2 operations. As a result the new Operator is simpler to use and is more opinionated. The key differences from earlier versions of the Operator are:

  • The QuayEcosystem custom resource has been replaced with the QuayRegistry custom resource

  • The default installation options produces a fully supported Quay environment with all managed dependencies (database, caches, object storage, etc) supported for production use (some components may not be highly available)

  • A new robust validation library for Quay’s configuration which is shared by the Quay application and config tool for consistency

  • Object storage can now be provided by the Operator using the ObjectBucketClaim Kubernetes API (e.g. the NooBaa Operator can be from OperatorHub.io can be used to provide an implementation of that API)

  • Customization of the container images used by deployed pods for testing and development scenarios

Before Installing the Quay Operator

Deciding On a Storage Solution

If you want the Operator to manage object storage for Quay, your cluster needs to be capable of providing it via the ObjectBucketClaim API. There are multiple implementations of this API available, for instance, NooBaa in combination with Kubernetes PersistentVolumes or scalable storage backends like Ceph. Refer to the NooBaa documentation for more details on how to deploy this component.

Installing the Operator from OperatorHub

  1. Using the OpenShift console, Select Operators → OperatorHub, then select the Quay Operator. If there is more than one, be sure to use the Red Hat certified Operator and not the community version.

  2. Select Install. The Operator Subscription page appears.

  3. Choose the following then select Subscribe:

    • Installation Mode: Choose either 'All namespaces' or 'A specific namespace' depending on whether you want the Operator to be available cluster-wide or only within a single namespace (all-namespaces recommended)

    • Update Channel: Choose the update channel (only one may be available)

    • Approval Strategy: Choose to approve automatic or manual updates

  4. Select Install.

  5. After a minute you will see the Operator installed successfully in the Installed Operators page.

High Level Concepts

QuayRegistry API

The Quay Operator provides the QuayRegistry custom resource API to declaratively manage Quay container registries on the cluster. Use either the OpenShift UI or a command-line tool to interact with this API.

  • Creating a QuayRegistry will result in the Operator deploying and configuring all necessary resources needed to run Quay on the cluster.

  • Editing a QuayRegistry will result in the Operator reconciling the changes and creating/updating/deleting objects to match the desired configuration.

  • Deleting a QuayRegistry will result in garbage collection of all previously created resources and the Quay container registry will no longer be available.

The QuayRegistry API is fairly simple, and the fields are outlined in the following sections.

Components

Quay is a powerful container registry platform and as a result, requires a decent number of dependencies. These include a database, object storage, Redis, and others. The Quay Operator manages an opinionated deployment of Quay and its dependencies on Kubernetes. These dependencies are treated as components and are configured through the QuayRegistry API.

In the QuayRegistry custom resource, the spec.components field configures components. Each component contains two fields: kind - the name of the component, and managed - boolean whether the component lifecycle is handled by the Operator. By default (omitting this field), all components are managed and will be autofilled upon reconciliation for visibility:

spec:
  components:
    - kind: postgres
      managed: true
    ...

Unless your QuayRegistry custom resource specifies otherwise, the Operator will use defaults for the following managed components:

  • postgres Stores the registry metadata. Uses an upstream (CentOS) version of Postgres 10.

  • redis Handles Quay builder coordination and some internal logging.

  • objectstorage Stores image layer blobs. Utilizes the ObjectBucketClaim Kubernetes API which is provided by Noobaa/RHOCS.

  • clair Provides image vulnerability scanning.

  • horizontalpodautoscaler Adjusts the number of Quay pods depending on memory/cpu consumption.

  • mirror Configures a repository mirror worker (to support optional repository mirroring).

  • route Provides an external entrypoint to the Quay registry from outside of OpenShift.

Considerations For Managed Components

While the Operator will handle any required configuration and installation work needed for Project Quay to use the managed components, there are several considerations to keep in mind.

  • Database backups should be performed regularly using either the supplied tools on the Postgres image or your own backup infrastructure. The Operator does not currently ensure the Postgres database is backed up.

  • Restoring the Postgres database from a backup must be done using Postgres tools and procedures. Be aware that your Quay Pods should not be running while the database restore is in progress.

  • Database disk space is allocated automatically by the Operator with 50 GiB. This number represents a usable amount of storage for most small to medium Project Quay installations but may not be sufficient for your use cases. Resizing the database volume is currently not handled by the Operator.

  • Object storage disk space is allocated automatically by the Operator with 50 GiB. This number represents a usable amount of storage for most small to medium Project Quay installations but may not be sufficient for your use cases. Resizing the RHOCS volume is currently not handled by the Operator. See the section below on resizing managed storage for more details.

  • The Operator will deploy an OpenShift Route as the default entrypoint to the registry. If you prefer a different entrypoint (e.g. Ingress or direct Service access that configuration will need to be done manually).

If any of these considerations are unacceptable for your environment, it would be suggested to provide the Operator with unmanaged resources or overrides as described in the following sections.

Using Existing (Un-Managed) Components With the Quay Operator

If you have existing components such as Postgres, Redis or object storage that you would like to use with Quay, you first configure them within the Quay configuration bundle (config.yaml) and then reference the bundle in your QuayRegistry (as a Kubernetes Secret) while indicating which components are unmanaged.

For example, to use an existing Postgres database:

  1. Create a Secret with the necessary database fields in a config.yaml file:

    config.yaml:
    DB_URI: postgresql://test-quay-database:postgres@test-quay-database:5432/test-quay-database
    $ kubectl create secret generic --from-file config.yaml=./config.yaml test-config-bundle
  2. Create a QuayRegistry which marks postgres component as unmanaged and references the created Secret:

    quayregistry.yaml
    apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
    kind: QuayRegistry
    metadata:
      name: test
    spec:
      configBundleSecret: test-config-bundle
      components:
        - kind: postgres
          managed: false

    The deployed Quay application will now use the external database.

Note

The Quay config editor can also be used to create or modify an existing config bundle and simplify the process of updating the Kubernetes Secret, especially for multiple changes. When Quay’s configuration is changed via the config editor and sent to the Operator, the Quay deployment will be updated to reflect the new configuration.

Config Bundle Secret

The spec.configBundleSecret field is a reference to the metadata.name of a Secret in the same namespace as the QuayRegistry. This Secret must contain a config.yaml key/value pair. This config.yaml file is a Quay config YAML file. This field is optional, and will be auto-filled by the Operator if not provided. If provided, it serves as the base set of config fields which are later merged with other fields from any managed components to form a final output Secret, which is then mounted into the Quay application pods.

AWS S3 CloudFront

If you use AWS S3 CloudFront for backend registry storage, specify the private key as shown in the following example:

$ oc create secret generic --from-file config.yaml=./config_awss3cloudfront.yaml --from-file default-cloudfront-signing-key.pem=./default-cloudfront-signing-key.pem test-config-bundle

QuayRegistry Status

Lifecycle observability for a given Quay deployment is reported in the status section of the corresponding QuayRegistry object. The Operator constantly updates this section, and this should be the first place to look for any problems or state changes in Quay or its managed dependencies.

Registry Endpoint

Once Quay is ready to be used, the status.registryEndpoint field will be populated with the publicly available hostname of the registry.

Config Editor Endpoint

Access Quay’s UI-based config editor using status.configEditorEndpoint.

Config Editor Credentials Secret

The username/password for the config editor UI will be stored in a Secret in the same namespace as the QuayRegistry referenced by status.configEditorCredentialsSecret.

Current Version

The current version of Quay that is running will be reported in status.currentVersion.

Conditions

Certain conditions will be reported in status.conditions.

Deploying Quay using the Quay Operator

Creating a Quay Registry

The default configuration tells the Operator to manage all of Quay’s dependencies (database, Redis, object storage, etc).

OpenShift Console

  1. Select Operators → Installed Operators, then select the Quay Operator to navigate to the Operator detail view.

  2. Click 'Create Instance' on the 'Quay Registry' tile under 'Provided APIs'.

  3. Optionally change the 'Name' of the QuayRegistry. This will affect the hostname of the registry. All other fields have been populated with defaults.

  4. Click 'Create' to submit the QuayRegistry to be deployed by the Quay Operator.

  5. You should be redirected to the QuayRegistry list view. Click on the QuayRegistry you just created to see the detail view.

  6. Once the 'Registry Endpoint' has a value, click it to access your new Quay registry via the UI. You can now select 'Create Account' to create a user and sign in.

Command Line

The same result can be achieved using the CLI.

  1. Create the following QuayRegistry custom resource in a file called quay.yaml.

    quay.yaml:
    apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
    kind: QuayRegistry
    metadata:
      name: my-registry
  2. Create the QuayRegistry in your namespace:

    $ oc create -n <your-namespace> -f quay.yaml
  3. Wait until the status.registryEndpoint is populated.

    $ oc get -n <your-namespace> quayregistry my-registry -o jsonpath="{.status.registryEndpoint}" -w
  4. Once the status.registryEndpoint has a value, navigate to it using your web browser to access your new Quay registry via the UI. You can now select 'Create Account' to create a user and sign in.

Deploying Quay on infrastructure nodes

By default, Quay-related pods are placed on arbitrary worker nodes when using the Operator to deploy the registry. The OpenShift Container Platform documentation shows how to use machine sets to configure nodes to only host infrastructure components (see https://docs.openshift.com/container-platform/4.7/machine_management/creating-infrastructure-machinesets.html).

If you are not using OCP MachineSet resources to deploy infra nodes, this section shows you how to manually label and taint nodes for infrastructure purposes.

Once you have your configured your infrastructure nodes, either manually or using machine sets, you can then control the placement of Quay pods on these nodes using node selectors and tolerations.

Label and taint nodes for infrastructure use

In the cluster used in this example, there are three master nodes and six worker nodes:

$ oc get nodes
NAME                                               STATUS   ROLES    AGE     VERSION
user1-jcnp6-master-0.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master   3h30m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-master-1.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master   3h30m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-master-2.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master   3h30m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-b-65plj.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h21m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-b-jr7hc.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h21m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-c-jrq4v.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h21m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h21m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h22m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker   3h21m   v1.20.0+ba45583

Label the final three worker nodes for infrastructure use:

$ oc label node --overwrite user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=
$ oc label node --overwrite user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=
$ oc label node --overwrite user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra=

Now, when you list the nodes in the cluster, the last 3 worker nodes will have an added role of infra:

$ oc get nodes
NAME                                               STATUS   ROLES          AGE     VERSION
user1-jcnp6-master-0.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master         4h14m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-master-1.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master         4h15m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-master-2.c.quay-devel.internal         Ready    master         4h14m   v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-b-65plj.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker         4h6m    v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-b-jr7hc.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker         4h5m    v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-c-jrq4v.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    worker         4h5m    v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    infra,worker   4h6m    v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    infra,worker   4h6m    v1.20.0+ba45583
user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal   Ready    infra,worker   4h6m    v1.20.0+ba45583

With an infra node being assigned as a worker, there is a chance that user workloads could get inadvertently assigned to an infra node. To avoid this, you can apply a taint to the infra node and then add tolerations for the pods you want to control.

$ oc adm taint nodes user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra:NoSchedule
$ oc adm taint nodes user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra:NoSchedule
$ oc adm taint nodes user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal node-role.kubernetes.io/infra:NoSchedule

Create a Project with node selector and toleration

If you have already deployed Quay using the Quay Operator, remove the installed operator and any specific namespace(s) you created for the deployment.

Create a Project resource, specifying a node selector and toleration as shown in the following example:

quay-registry.yaml
kind: Project
apiVersion: project.openshift.io/v1
metadata:
  name: quay-registry
  annotations:
    openshift.io/node-selector: 'node-role.kubernetes.io/infra='
    scheduler.alpha.kubernetes.io/defaultTolerations: >-
      [{"operator": "Exists", "effect": "NoSchedule", "key":
      "node-role.kubernetes.io/infra"}
      ]

Use the oc apply command to create the project:

$ oc apply -f quay-registry.yaml
project.project.openshift.io/quay-registry created

Any subsequent resources created in the quay-registry namespace should now be scheduled on the dedicated infrastructure nodes.

Install the Quay Operator in the namespace

When installing the Quay Operator, specify the appropriate project namespace explicitly, in this case quay-registry. This will result in the operator pod itself landing on one of the three infrastructure nodes:

$ oc get pods -n quay-registry -o wide
NAME                                    READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE   IP            NODE                                              
quay-operator.v3.4.1-6f6597d8d8-bd4dp   1/1     Running   0          30s   10.131.0.16   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal

Create the registry

Create the registry as explained earlier, and then wait for the deployment to be ready. When you list the Quay pods, you should now see that they have only been scheduled on the three nodes that you have labelled for infrastructure purposes:

$ oc get pods -n quay-registry -o wide
NAME                                                   READY   STATUS      RESTARTS   AGE     IP            NODE                                                
example-registry-clair-app-789d6d984d-gpbwd            1/1     Running     1          5m57s   10.130.2.80   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-clair-postgres-7c8697f5-zkzht         1/1     Running     0          4m53s   10.129.2.19   user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-app-56dd755b6d-glbf7             1/1     Running     1          5m57s   10.129.2.17   user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-config-editor-7bf9bccc7b-dpc6d   1/1     Running     0          5m57s   10.131.0.23   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-database-8dc7cfd69-dr2cc         1/1     Running     0          5m43s   10.129.2.18   user1-jcnp6-worker-c-pwxfp.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-mirror-78df886bcc-v75p9          1/1     Running     0          5m16s   10.131.0.24   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-postgres-init-8s8g9              0/1     Completed   0          5m54s   10.130.2.79   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal
example-registry-quay-redis-5688ddcdb6-ndp4t           1/1     Running     0          5m56s   10.130.2.78   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-m9gg4.c.quay-devel.internal
quay-operator.v3.4.1-6f6597d8d8-bd4dp                  1/1     Running     0          22m     10.131.0.16   user1-jcnp6-worker-d-h5tv2.c.quay-devel.internal

Upgrading Quay using the Quay Operator

The Quay Operator follows a synchronized versioning scheme, which means that each version of the Operator is tied to the version of Quay and its components which it manages. There is no field on the QuayRegistry custom resource which sets the version of Quay to deploy; the Operator only knows how to deploy a single version of all components. This scheme was chosen to ensure that all components work well together and to reduce the complexity of the Operator needing to know how to manage the lifecycles of many different versions of Quay on Kubernetes.

Operator Lifecycle Manager

The Quay Operator should be installed and upgraded using the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM). When creating a Subscription with the default approvalStrategy: Automatic, OLM will automatically upgrade the Quay Operator whenever a new version becomes available.

Warning

When the Quay Operator is installed via Operator Lifecycle Manager it may be configured to support automatic or manual upgrades. This option is shown on the Operator Hub page for the Quay Operator during installation. It can also be found in the Quay Operator Subscription object via the approvalStrategy field. Choosing Automatic means that your Quay Operator will automatically be upgraded whenever a new Operator version is released. If this is not desireable, then the Manual approval strategy should be selected.

Upgrading Quay by upgrading the Quay Operator

The general approach for upgrading installed Operators on OpenShift is documented at Upgrading installed Operators.

Upgrading Quay

From a Project Quay point of view, to update from one minor version to the next, for example, 3.4 → 3.5, you need to actively change the update channel for the Quay Operator.

For z stream upgrades, for example, 3.4.2 → 3.4.3, updates are released in the major-minor channel that the user initially selected during install. The procedure to perform a z stream upgrade depends on the approvalStrategy as outlined above. If the approval strategy is set to Automatic, the Operator will upgrade automatically to the newest z stream, resulting in automatic, rolling Quay updates to newer z streams with little to no downtime. Otherwise, the update must be manually approved before installation can begin.

Changing the update channel for an Operator

The subscription of an installed Operator specifies an update channel, which is used to track and receive updates for the Operator. To upgrade the Quay Operator to start tracking and receiving updates from a newer channel, change the update channel in the Subscription tab for the installed Quay Operator. For subscriptions with an Automatic approval strategy, the upgrade begins automatically and can be monitored on the page that lists the Installed Operators.

Manually approving a pending Operator upgrade

If an installed Operator has the approval strategy in its subscription set to Manual, when new updates are released in its current update channel, the update must be manually approved before installation can begin. If the Quay Operator has a pending upgrade, this status will be displayed in the list of Installed Operators. In the Subscription tab for the Quay Operator, you can preview the install plan and review the resources that are listed as available for upgrade. If satisfied, click Approve and return to the page that lists Installed Operators to monitor the progress of the upgrade.

The following image shows the Subscription tab in the UI, including the update Channel, the Approval strategy, the Upgrade status and the InstallPlan:

Subscription tab including upgrade Channel and Approval strategy

The list of Installed Operators provides a high-level summary of the current Quay installation:

Installed Operators

Upgrading a QuayRegistry

When the Quay Operator starts up, it immediately looks for any QuayRegistries it can find in the namespace(s) it is configured to watch. When it finds one, the following logic is used:

  • If status.currentVersion is unset, reconcile as normal.

  • If status.currentVersion equals the Operator version, reconcile as normal.

  • If status.currentVersion does not equal the Operator version, check if it can be upgraded. If it can, perform upgrade tasks and set the status.currentVersion to the Operator’s version once complete. If it cannot be upgraded, return an error and leave the QuayRegistry and its deployed Kubernetes objects alone.

Enabling new features in Quay 3.5

Console monitoring and alerting

The support for monitoring of Quay 3.5 in the OpenShift console requires that the Operator is installed in all namespaces. If you previously installed the Operator in a specific namespace, delete the Operator itself and re-install it for all namespaces, once the upgrade has taken place.

OCI and Helm support

Support for Helm and OCI artifacts is now enabled by default in Project Quay {producty}. If you want to explicitly enable the feature, for example, if you are upgrading from a version where it is not enabled by default, you need to reconfigure your Quay deployment to enable the use of OCI artifacts using the following properties:

FEATURE_GENERAL_OCI_SUPPORT: true
FEATURE_HELM_OCI_SUPPORT: true

Upgrading a QuayEcosystem

Upgrades are supported from previous versions of the Operator which used the QuayEcosystem API for a limited set of configurations. To ensure that migrations do not happen unexpectedly, a special label needs to be applied to the QuayEcosystem for it to be migrated. A new QuayRegistry will be created for the Operator to manage, but the old QuayEcosystem will remain until manually deleted to ensure that you can roll back and still access Quay in case anything goes wrong. To migrate an existing QuayEcosystem to a new QuayRegistry, follow these steps:

  1. Add "quay-operator/migrate": "true" to the metadata.labels of the QuayEcosystem.

    $ oc edit quayecosystem <quayecosystemname>
    metadata:
      labels:
        quay-operator/migrate: "true"
  2. Wait for a QuayRegistry to be created with the same metadata.name as your QuayEcosystem. The QuayEcosystem will be marked with the label "quay-operator/migration-complete": "true".

  3. Once the status.registryEndpoint of the new QuayRegistry is set, access Quay and confirm all data and settings were migrated successfully.

  4. When you are confident everything worked correctly, you may delete the QuayEcosystem and Kubernetes garbage collection will clean up all old resources.

Reverting QuayEcosystem Upgrade

If something goes wrong during the automatic upgrade from QuayEcosystem to QuayRegistry, follow these steps to revert back to using the QuayEcosystem:

  • Delete the QuayRegistry using either the UI or kubectl:

    $ kubectl delete -n <namespace> quayregistry <quayecosystem-name>
  • If external access was provided using a Route, change the Route to point back to the original Service using the UI or kubectl.

Note

If your QuayEcosystem was managing the Postgres database, the upgrade process will migrate your data to a new Postgres database managed by the upgraded Operator. Your old database will not be changed or removed but Quay will no longer use it once the migration is complete. If there are issues during the data migration, the upgrade process will exit and it is recommended that you continue with your database as an unmanaged component.

Supported QuayEcosystem Configurations for Upgrades

The Quay Operator will report errors in its logs and in status.conditions if migrating a QuayEcosystem component fails or is unsupported. All unmanaged components should migrate successfully because no Kubernetes resources need to be adopted and all the necessary values are already provided in Quay’s config.yaml.

Database

Ephemeral database not supported (volumeSize field must be set).

Redis

Nothing special needed.

External Access

Only passthrough Route access supported for automatic migration. Manual migration required for other methods.

  • LoadBalancer without custom hostname: After the QuayEcosystem is marked with label "quay-operator/migration-complete": "true", delete the metadata.ownerReferences field from existing Service before deleting the QuayEcosystem to prevent Kubernetes from garbage collecting the Service and removing the load balancer. A new Service will be created with metadata.name format <QuayEcosystem-name>-quay-app. Edit the spec.selector of the existing Service to match the spec.selector of the new Service so traffic to the old load balancer endpoint will now be directed to the new pods. You are now responsible for the old Service; the Quay Operator will not manage it.

  • LoadBalancer/NodePort/Ingress with custom hostname: A new Service of type LoadBalancer will be created with metadata.name format <QuayEcosystem-name>-quay-app. Change your DNS settings to point to the status.loadBalancer endpoint provided by the new Service.

Clair

Nothing special needed.

Object Storage

QuayEcosystem did not have a managed object storage component, so object storage will always be marked as unmanaged. Local storage is not supported.

Repository Mirroring

Nothing special needed.

Quay Operator features

Helm OCI Support and Project Quay

Container registries such as Project Quay were originally designed to support container images in the Docker image format. To promote the use of additional runtimes apart from Docker, the Open Container Initiative (OCI) was created to provide a standardization surrounding container runtimes and image formats. Most container registries support the OCI standardization as it is based on the Docker image manifest V2, Schema 2 format.

In addition to container images, a variety of artifacts have emerged that support not just individual applications, but the Kubernetes platform as a whole. These range from Open Policy Agent (OPA) policies for security and governance to Helm charts and Operators to aid in application deployment.

Project Quay is a private container registry that not only stores container images, but supports an entire ecosystem of tooling to aid in the management of containers. With the release of Project Quay {producty}, support for the use of OCI based artifacts, and specifically Helm Charts, has graduated from Technical Preview (TP) and now has General Availability (GA) status.

When Project Quay {producty} is deployed using the OpenShift Operator, support for Helm and OCI artifacts is now enabled by default. If you need to explicitly enable the feature, for example, if it has previously been disabled or if you have upgraded from a version where it is not enabled by default, see the section Explicitly enabling OCI and Helm support.

Prerequisites

  • Trusted certificates: Communication between the Helm client and Quay is facilitated over HTTPS and as of Helm 3.5, support is only available for registries communicating over HTTPS with trusted certificates. In addition, the operating system must trust the certificates exposed by the registry. Support in future Helm releases will allow for communicating with remote registries insecurely. With that in mind, ensure that your operating system has been configured to trust the certificates used by Quay, for example:

    $ sudo cp rootCA.pem   /etc/pki/ca-trust/source/anchors/
    $ sudo update-ca-trust extract
  • Experimental feature: Many of the commands for interacting with Helm and OCI registries make use of the helm chart subcommand. At the time of writing, OCI support in Helm is still marked as an “experimental” feature and must be enabled explicitly. This is accomplished by setting the environment variable HELM_EXPERIMENTAL_OCI=1.

  • Install Helm client: Download your desired version from https://github.com/helm/helm/releases, for example, https://get.helm.sh/helm-v3.5.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz. Unpack it and move the helm binary to its desired destination:

    $ tar -zxvf helm-v3.5.3-linux-amd64.tar.gz
    $ mv linux-amd64/helm /usr/local/bin/helm
  • Create organization in Quay: Create a new organization for storing the Helm charts, using the Quay registry UI. For example, create an organization named helm.

Using Helm charts with Quay

Helm, as a graduated project of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), has become the de facto package manager for Kubernetes as it simplifies how applications are packaged and deployed. Helm uses a packaging format called Charts which contain the Kubernetes resources representing an application. Charts can be made available for general distribution and consumption in repositories. A Helm repository is an HTTP server that serves an index.yaml metadata file and optionally a set of packaged charts. Beginning with Helm version 3, support was made available for distributing charts in OCI registries as an alternative to a traditional repository. To demonstrate how Quay can be used as a registry for Helm charts, an existing chart from a Helm repository will be used to showcase the interaction with OCI registries for chart developers and users.

In the following example, a sample etherpad chart is downloaded from from the Red Community of Practice (CoP) repository and pushed to a local Project Quay repository using the following steps:

  • Add the appropriate repository

  • Update the repository with the latest metadata

  • Download and untar the chart to create a local directory called etherpad

For example:

$ helm repo add redhat-cop https://redhat-cop.github.io/helm-charts
$ helm repo update
$ helm pull redhat-cop/etherpad --version=0.0.4 --untar

Tagging the chart requires use of the helm chart save command - this corresponds to using podman tag for tagging images.

$ helm chart save ./etherpad example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4

ref:     example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4
digest:  6850d9b21dd4b87cf20ad49f2e2c7def9655c52ea573e1ddb9d1464eeb6a46a6
size:    3.5 KiB
name:    etherpad
version: 0.0.4
0.0.4: saved

Use the helm chart list command to see the local instance of the chart:

helm chart list

REF                                                                               NAME     VERSION DIGEST SIZE   CREATED
example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4 etherpad 0.0.4   ce0233f 3.5 KiB 23 seconds

Before pushing the chart, log in to the repository using the helm registry login command:

$ helm registry login example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com
Username: quayadmin
Password:
Login succeeded

Push the chart to your local Quay repository using the helm chart push command:

$ helm chart push example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4

The push refers to repository [example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad]
ref:     example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4
digest:  ce0233fd014992b8e27cc648cdabbebd4dd6850aca8fb8e50f7eef6f2f49833d
size:    3.5 KiB
name:    etherpad
version: 0.0.4
0.0.4: pushed to remote (1 layer, 3.5 KiB total)

To test that the push worked, delete the local copy and then pull the chart from the repository:

$ helm chart rm example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4
$ rm -rf etherpad
$ helm chart pull example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4

0.0.4: Pulling from example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad
ref:     example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4
digest:  6850d9b21dd4b87cf20ad49f2e2c7def9655c52ea573e1ddb9d1464eeb6a46a6
size:    3.5 KiB
name:    etherpad
version: 0.0.4
Status: Downloaded newer chart for example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4

Use the helm chart export command to extract the chart files:

$ helm chart export example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4

ref:     example-registry-quay-quay-enterprise.apps.user1.example.com/helm/etherpad:0.0.4
digest:  ce0233fd014992b8e27cc648cdabbebd4dd6850aca8fb8e50f7eef6f2f49833d
size:    3.5 KiB
name:    etherpad
version: 0.0.4
Exported chart to etherpad/

Explicitly enabling OCI and Helm support

Support for Helm and OCI artifacts is now enabled by default in Project Quay {producty}. If you need to explicitly enable the feature, for example, if it has previously been disabled or if you have upgraded from a version where it is not enabled by default, you need to add two properties in the Quay configuration to enable the use of OCI artifacts:

FEATURE_GENERAL_OCI_SUPPORT: true
FEATURE_HELM_OCI_SUPPORT: true

Customizations to the configuration of Quay can be provided in a secret containing the configuration bundle. Execute the following command which will create a new secret called quay-config-bundle, in the appropriate namespace, containing the necessary properties to enable OCI support.

quay-config-bundle.yaml
apiVersion: v1
stringData:
  config.yaml: |
    FEATURE_GENERAL_OCI_SUPPORT: true
    FEATURE_HELM_OCI_SUPPORT: true
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: quay-config-bundle
  namespace: quay-enterprise
type: Opaque

Create the secret in the appropriate namespace, in this example quay-enterprise:

$ oc create -n quay-enterprise -f quay-config-bundle.yaml

Specify the secret for the spec.configBundleSecret field:

quay-registry.yaml
apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
kind: QuayRegistry
metadata:
  name: example-registry
  namespace: quay-enterprise
spec:
  configBundleSecret: quay-config-bundle

Create the registry with the specified configuration:

$ oc create -n quay-enterprise -f quay-config-bundle.yaml

Console monitoring and alerting

Project Quay {producty} provides support for monitoring Quay instances that were deployed using the Operator, from inside the OpenShift console. The new monitoring features include a Grafana dashboard, access to individual metrics, and alerting to notify for frequently restarting Quay pods.

Note

To enable the monitoring features, the Operator must be installed in "all namespaces" mode.

Dashboard

In the OpenShift console, navigate to Monitoring → Dashboards and search for the dashboard of your desired Quay registry instance:

Choose Quay dashboard

The dashboard shows various statistics including:

  • The number of Organizations, Repositories, Users and Robot accounts

  • CPU Usage and Max Memory Usage

  • Rates of Image Pulls and Pushes, and Authentication requests

  • API request rate

  • Latencies

Console dashboard

Metrics

You can see the underlying metrics behind the Quay dashboard, by accessing Monitoring → Metrics in the UI. In the Expression field, enter the text quay_ to see the list of metrics available:

Quay metrics

Select a sample metric, for example, quay_org_rows:

Number of Quay organizations

This metric shows the number of organizations in the registry, and it is directly surfaced in the dashboard as well.

Alerting

An alert is raised if the Quay pods restart too often. The alert can be configured by accessing the Alerting rules tab from Monitoring → Alerting in the consol UI and searching for the Quay-specific alert:

Alerting rules

Select the QuayPodFrequentlyRestarting rule detail to configure the alert:

Alerting rule details

Manually updating the vulnerability databases for Clair in an air-gapped OpenShift cluster

Clair utilizes packages called updaters that encapsulate the logic of fetching and parsing different vulnerability databases. Clair supports running updaters in a different environment and importing the results. This is aimed at supporting installations that disallow the Clair cluster from talking to the Internet directly.

To manually update the vulnerability databases for Clair in an air-gapped OpenShift cluster, use the following steps:

  • Obtain the clairctl program

  • Retrieve the Clair config

  • Use clairctl to export the updaters bundle from a Clair instance that has access to the internet

  • Update the Clair config in the air-gapped OpenShift cluster to allow access to the Clair database

  • Transfer the updaters bundle from the system with internet access, to make it available inside the air-gapped environment

  • Use clairctl to import the updaters bundle into the Clair instance for the air-gapped OpenShift cluster

Obtaining clairctl

To obtain the clairctl program from a Clair deployment in an OpenShift cluster, use the oc cp command, for example:

$ oc -n quay-enterprise cp example-registry-clair-app-64dd48f866-6ptgw:/usr/bin/clairctl ./clairctl
$ chmod u+x ./clairctl

For a standalone Clair deployment, use the podman cp command, for example:

$ sudo podman cp clairv4:/usr/bin/clairctl ./clairctl
$ chmod u+x ./clairctl

Retrieving the Clair config

To retrieve the configuration file for a Clair instance deployed using the OpenShift Operator, retrieve and decode the config secret using the appropriate namespace, and save it to file, for example:

$ kubectl get secret -n quay-enterprise example-registry-clair-config-secret  -o "jsonpath={$.data['config\.yaml']}" | base64 -d > clair-config.yaml

An excerpt from a Clair configuration file is shown below:

clair-config.yaml
http_listen_addr: :8080
introspection_addr: ""
log_level: info
indexer:
    connstring: host=example-registry-clair-postgres port=5432 dbname=postgres user=postgres password=postgres sslmode=disable
    scanlock_retry: 10
    layer_scan_concurrency: 5
    migrations: true
    scanner:
        package: {}
        dist: {}
        repo: {}
    airgap: false
matcher:
    connstring: host=example-registry-clair-postgres port=5432 dbname=postgres user=postgres password=postgres sslmode=disable
    max_conn_pool: 100
    indexer_addr: ""
    migrations: true
    period: null
    disable_updaters: false
notifier:
    connstring: host=example-registry-clair-postgres port=5432 dbname=postgres user=postgres password=postgres sslmode=disable
    migrations: true
    indexer_addr: ""
    matcher_addr: ""
    poll_interval: 5m
    delivery_interval: 1m
    ...

For standalone Clair deployments, the config file is the one specified in CLAIR_CONF environment variable in the podman run command, for example:

sudo podman run -d --rm --name clairv4 \
  -p 8081:8081 -p 8089:8089 \
  -e CLAIR_CONF=/clair/config.yaml -e CLAIR_MODE=combo \
  -v /etc/clairv4/config:/clair:Z \
  quay.io/projectquay/clair:qui-gon

Exporting the updaters bundle

From a Clair instance that has access to the internet, use clairctl with the appropriate configuration file to export the updaters bundle:

$ ./clairctl --config ./config.yaml export-updaters updates.gz

Configuring access to the Clair database in the air-gapped OpenShift cluster

  • Use kubectl to determine the Clair database service:

    $ kubectl get svc -n quay-enterprise
    
    NAME                                  TYPE           CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP   PORT(S)                             AGE
    example-registry-clair-app            ClusterIP      172.30.224.93    <none>        80/TCP,8089/TCP                     4d21h
    example-registry-clair-postgres       ClusterIP      172.30.246.88    <none>        5432/TCP                            4d21h
    ...
  • Forward the Clair database port so that it is accessible from the local machine, for example:

    $ kubectl port-forward -n quay-enterprise service/example-registry-clair-postgres 5432:5432
  • Update the Clair configuration file, replacing the value of the host in the multiple connstring fields with localhost, for example:

    clair-config.yaml
        ...
        connstring: host=localhost port=5432 dbname=postgres user=postgres password=postgres sslmode=disable
        ...
Note

As an alternative to using kubectl port-forward, you can use kubefwd instead. With this method, there is no need to modify the connstring field in the Clair configuration file to use localhost.

Importing the updaters bundle into the air-gapped environment

After transferring the updaters bundle to the air-gapped environment, use clairctl to import the bundle into the Clair database deployed by the OpenShift Operator:

$ ./clairctl --config ./clair-config.yaml import-updaters updates.gz

Advanced Concepts

Customizing the Quay Deployment

The Quay Operator takes an opinionated strategy towards deploying Quay and its dependencies, however there are places where the Quay deployment can be customized.

Quay Application Configuration

Once deployed, the Quay application itself can be configured as normal using the config editor UI or by modifying the Secret containing the Quay configuration bundle. The Operator uses the Secret named in the spec.configBundleSecret field but does not watch this resource for changes. It is recommended that configuration changes be made to a new Secret resource and the spec.configBundleSecret field be updated to reflect the change. In the event there are issues with the new configuration, it is simple to revert the value of spec.configBundleSecret to the older Secret.

Customizing External Access to the Registry

When running on OpenShift, the Routes API is available and will automatically be used as a managed component. After creating the QuayRegistry, the external access point can be found in the status block of the QuayRegistry:

status:
  registryEndpoint: some-quay.my-namespace.apps.mycluster.com

When running on native Kubernetes, the Operator creates a Service of type: ClusterIP for your registry. You are then responsible for external access (like Ingress).

$ kubectl get services -n <namespace>
NAME                    TYPE        CLUSTER-IP       EXTERNAL-IP          PORT(S)             AGE
some-quay               ClusterIP   172.30.143.199   <none>               443/TCP,9091/TCP    23h
Using a Custom Hostname and TLS

By default, a Route will be created with the default generated hostname and a certificate/key pair will be generated for TLS. If you want to access Project Quay using a custom hostname and bring your own TLS certificate/key pair, follow these steps.

If FEATURE_BUILD_SUPPORT: true, then make sure the certificate/key pair is also valid for the BUILDMAN_HOSTNAME.

If the given cert/key pair is invalid for the above hostnames, then the Quay Operator will reject your provided certificate/key pair and generate one to be used by Project Quay.

Next, create a Secret with the following content:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: my-config-bundle
data:
  config.yaml: <must include SERVER_HOSTNAME field with your custom hostname>
  ssl.cert: <your TLS certificate>
  ssl.key: <your TLS key>

Then, create a QuayRegistry which references the created Secret:

apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
kind: QuayRegistry
metadata:
  name: some-quay
spec:
  configBundleSecret: my-config-bundle
Using OpenShift Provided TLS Certificate

It is preferred to have TLS terminated in the Quay app container. Therefore, to use the OpenShift provided TLS, you must create a Route with type "reencrypt", which will use the OpenShift provided TLS at the edge, and Quay Operator-generated TLS within the cluster. This is achieved by marking the route component as unmanaged, and creating your own Route which reencrypts TLS using the Operator-generated CA certificate.

Create a Secret with a config.yaml key containing the SERVER_HOSTNAME field of value <route-name>-<namespace>.apps.<cluster-domain> (the Route with this hostname will be created in a later step).

apiVersion: v1
kind: Secret
metadata:
  name: my-config-bundle
data:
  config.yaml: <must include SERVER_HOSTNAME field with your custom hostname>

Create a QuayRegistry referencing the above Secret and with the route component unmanaged:

apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
kind: QuayRegistry
metadata:
  name: some-quay
spec:
  configBundleSecret: my-config-bundle
  components:
  - kind: route
    managed: false

Wait for the QuayRegistry to be fully reconciled by the Quay Operator. Then, acquire the generated TLS certificate by finding the Secret being mounted into the Quay app pods and copying the tls.cert value.

Create a Route with TLS reencryption and the destination CA certificate you copied above:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
metadata:
  name: registry
  namespace: <namespace>
spec:
  to:
    kind: Service
    name: <quay-service-name>
  tls:
    termination: reencrypt
    destinationCACertificate:
      -----BEGIN CERTIFICATE-----
      [...]
      -----END CERTIFICATE-----

You can now access your Quay registry using the created Route.

Disabling Route Component

To prevent the Operator from creating a Route, mark the component as unmanaged in the QuayRegistry:

apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
kind: QuayRegistry
metadata:
  name: some-quay
spec:
  components:
    - kind: route
      managed: false
Note

Disabling the default Route means you are now responsible for creating a Route, Service, or Ingress in order to access the Quay instance and that whatever DNS you use must match the SERVER_HOSTNAME in the Quay config.

Resizing Managed Storage

The Quay Operator creates default object storage using the defaults provided by RHOCS when creating a NooBaa object (50 Gib). There are two ways to extend this storage; you can resize an existing PVC or add more PVCs to a new storage pool.

Resize Noobaa PVC
  1. Log into the OpenShift console and select StoragePersistent Volume Claims.

  2. Select the PersistentVolumeClaim named like noobaa-default-backing-store-noobaa-pvc-*.

  3. From the Action menu, select Expand PVC.

  4. Enter the new size of the Persistent Volume Claim and select Expand.

After a few minutes (depending on the size of the PVC), the expanded size should reflect in the PVC’s Capacity field.

Note

Expanding CSI volumes is a Technology Preview feature only. For more information, see https://access.redhat.com/documentation/en-us/openshift_container_platform/4.6/html/storage/expanding-persistent-volumes.

Add Another Storage Pool
  1. Log into the OpenShift console and select NetworkingRoutes. Make sure the openshift-storage project is selected.

  2. Click on the Location field for the noobaa-mgmt Route.

  3. Log into the Noobaa Management Console.

  4. On the main dashboard, under Storage Resources, select Add Storage Resources.

  5. Select Deploy Kubernetes Pool

  6. Enter a new pool name. Click Next.

  7. Choose the number of Pods to manage the pool and set the size per node. Click Next.

  8. Click Deploy.

After a few minutes, the additional storage pool will be added to the Noobaa resources and available for use by Project Quay.

Disabling the Horizontal Pod Autoscaler

If you wish to disable autoscaling or create your own HorizontalPodAutoscaler, simply specify the component as unmanaged in the QuayRegistry instance:

apiVersion: quay.redhat.com/v1
kind: QuayRegistry
metadata:
  name: some-quay
spec:
  components:
    - kind: horizontalpodautoscaler
      managed: false

Customizing Default Operator Images

Note

Using this mechanism is not supported for production Quay environments and is strongly encouraged only for development/testing purposes. There is no guarantee your deployment will work correctly when using non-default images with the Quay Operator.

In certain circumstances, it may be useful to override the default images used by the Operator. This can be done by setting one or more environment variables in the Quay Operator ClusterServiceVersion.

Environment Variables

The following environment variables are used in the Operator to override component images:

Environment Variable

Component

RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_QUAY

base

RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_CLAIR

clair

RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_POSTGRES

postgres and clair databases

RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_REDIS

redis

Note

Override images must be referenced by manifest (@sha256:), not by tag (:latest).

Applying Overrides to a Running Operator

When the Quay Operator is installed in a cluster via the Operator Lifecycle Manager (OLM), the managed component container images can be easily overridden by modifying the ClusterServiceVersion object, which is OLM’s representation of a running Operator in the cluster. Find the Quay Operator’s ClusterServiceVersion either by using a Kubernetes UI or kubectl/oc:

$ oc get clusterserviceversions -n <your-namespace>

Using the UI, oc edit, or any other method, modify the Quay ClusterServiceVersion to include the environment variables outlined above to point to the override images:

JSONPath: spec.install.spec.deployments[0].spec.template.spec.containers[0].env

- name: RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_QUAY
  value: quay.io/projectquay/quay@sha256:c35f5af964431673f4ff5c9e90bdf45f19e38b8742b5903d41c10cc7f6339a6d
- name: RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_CLAIR
  value: quay.io/projectquay/clair@sha256:70c99feceb4c0973540d22e740659cd8d616775d3ad1c1698ddf71d0221f3ce6
- name: RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_POSTGRES
  value: centos/postgresql-10-centos7@sha256:de1560cb35e5ec643e7b3a772ebaac8e3a7a2a8e8271d9e91ff023539b4dfb33
- name: RELATED_IMAGE_COMPONENT_REDIS
  value: centos/redis-32-centos7@sha256:06dbb609484330ec6be6090109f1fa16e936afcf975d1cbc5fff3e6c7cae7542

Note that this is done at the Operator level, so every QuayRegistry will be deployed using these same overrides.

Additional resources

  • For more details on the Project Quay Operator, see the upstream quay-operator project.